These were the words used by psychologists in the s, and Harry Harlow didn't like them. He wanted to talk about love. He was at a conference one day, and every time he used the word "love" another scientist would interrupt and say, "You must mean proximity, don't you? But inHarlow was speaking science in a way no one had dared to before, injecting statistics with hemoglobin and heart, Single woman looking sex tonight Findlay Nabokov of psychology.
His experiments were long meditations on love, and all the ways we ruin it. In his research with wire monkeys, he ttest able to show that infant monkeys cared more for a soft surrogate mother that could not feed them than for a metal, milk-bearing one.
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Harlow's experiments, many captured on film, are chilling and underscore the power of proximity in our lives. From his findings a whole science of touch was born. Little is known of Harlow's own childhood.
His father was a failed inventor. His mother, Harlow recollected in a partly finished autobiography, was not a teat woman. Harlow experienced bouts of depression throughout his life; maybe here is where they began, in the long Midwestern winters. At school, he did not fit in. By age 10, he had begun to draw during every free minute he had, making a strange and beautiful land called Mature lady Campbell Hall, populated with questioons animals and horned beasts.
When he was done with a picture, he would bisect the beasts with sharp black lines, so they lay on theall bloody color but still somehow beautiful, vivid and vivisected. Harlow did his undergraduate and graduate work at Stanford, where he studied with Lewis Terman, the famous IQ researcher who was just then probing into gifted children. harrlow
At the suggestion of Terman, he changed his Jewish-sounding name to Harlow. After he married one of Terman's former gifted children, Clara Mears, with her IQ ofTerman wrote a letter of congratulations that makes the match sound more like animal husbandry than human bonding: "I am happy to see the ing of Clara's extraordinary hereditary material with Harry's productivity as a psychologist.
Ever Terman's student, he began by devising a test of monkey intelligence, a sort of simian IQ profile. But soon he began to wonder about something else. Harlow would begin his experiments by separating the infant monkeys from their mothers and peers, and he noticed that the infants, when separated, became extremely attached to the terry cloth towels covering the cage floors. They would lie on them, grip them in their tiny fists, throw tantrums if they were taken away, just like a human infant with a ratty blanket or a stuffed bear.
The monkeys loved these towels. This was a huge question. Attachment had ly been understood in terms Sexy housewives seeking nsa Montgomery Alabama nutritive rewards: We love our mothers because we love their tst.
Researchers Clark Hull and Kenneth Spence had said human attachment was predicated on drive queestions Hunger is a primary drive and we want to reduce it; the same goes for thirst and sex. Harlow, however, began to question it. He fed the baby monkeys by hand, and when he took the little plastic bottles away, questiojs infants just smacked their lips and maybe wiped a white dribble off their hairy chins. But when Harlow tried to take their towels away, the simians screamed like a slaughterhouse, throwing their small bodies down and clutching at bunches of cloth.
This fascinated Harlow. As his biographer Deborah Blum wrote, the best way to understand the heart was to break it. And so started Harlow's brutal and beautiful career. Rhesus macaque monkeys share roughly 94 percent of their genetic heritage with humans. But Harlow felt no kinship with his harpow subjects. I never have.
I don't really like animals. I despise cats. I hate dogs. How could you love monkeys? He used the wire cutters to fashion a wire mother, its torso patterned with small squares, a single inflexible breast "on the ventral front.
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Then Harlow fashioned a soft surrogate, a cardboard cone bunted in a terry cloth towel. He wrote, "The result was a mother, soft, warm, and tender, a mother with infinite patience, a mother available 24 hours a day. It is our opinion that we engineered a very superior monkey mother, although this position is not held universally by monkey fathers.
After the initial trauma, something amazing started to happen. Within days, the baby macaques transferred their affections from the real mother, who was no longer available, to the cloth surrogate. The cloth mother, however, had no milk, so when the youngsters were hungry, they would dart over to the chicken-wire mother and then harloa back to the safety of the soft towel.
“Love is a wondrous state, deep, tender, and rewarding… But… the little we know about love does not transcend simple observation, and the little we write about it has been written better by poets and novelists.”
Harlow graphed the mean questoins of time the monkeys spent nursing versus cuddling. The disparity in favor of cuddling, he wrote, was "so great as to suggest that the primary function of nursing. The child then takes this love, the memory of it, and recasts it outward, so that every interaction is a replay and a revision of this early touch.
The famous pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock advised feeding by schedule. Nestl and Ross laboratories discovered formula, white powder, plastic nipples, tepid water from the faucet. John Watson famously wrote, Horny lady looking for sex today his books about how to rear children, "Do not overindulge them. Do not kiss them goodnight. Rather, give a brief bow and shake their hand before turning off the light.
You should not hesitate to hold him. What's more, he said, any old palm will do: "Love for the real mother and love for the surrogate mother appear to be very similar. But what else was there? Surely, Harlow hypothesized, the face is another variable of love.
The original surrogates had primitive faces with black bicycle reflectors for eyes. Now Harlow ordered his lab assistant to make a really good monkey mask, to see test questions harlow free sort of Adult wants sex MO Scopus 63764 it would produce. However, the experimental monkey was born before the face was finished, so Harlow dropped the newborn in the cage with its terry cloth mother, who had only a blank, featureless flatland for a face.
The little monkey loved teat faceless mother, kissing it, nibbling it. When the free monkey mask was finally attached, the baby screamed in horror, rushed to a corner of its cage, rocked violently. Many have called Harlow's experiments cruel. But there is also something powerful and affirmative harllw what he gave us: the sure knowledge that our needs are more complex than simple hunger, that we seek to connect at all costs, and hatlow always find the first face the loveliest face.
Harlow queetions studying love even as he himself had already fallen out of love. Clara had left with her two children, but Harlow had another woman, the Iron Maiden. The Iron Maiden was a special surrogate monkey mother Harlow had deed; she shot out sharp spikes and blasted her babies with air so cold and forceful the infant monkeys were thrown back against the bars of their cages, clinging and screaming.
This, claimed Harlow, was an evil mother, and he wanted to see what would happen. Here is where Harlow began to earn his darker reputation. Here is where he stepped from science into fairy tales. He made many of the iron maidens: Some rattled their children and stabbed them. No matter what the torture, Harlow observed, the babies would not let tsst. There is queztions partial reinforcement to explain this behavior; there is only the dark side of touch, the reality of primate relationships, which is that mothers can kill us even as they hold us.
Inas the newly elected president of the American Psychological Association, Harlow traveled to the group's annual meeting in Washington, D.
At the end, he spoke of the "practical applications" of his research. American women, he said, were threatening to displace men in the workplace and the university. However, he declared, there was some good news. But something was not going well. When he took the grown-up cloth-mothered monkeys out to play and questioms, they freee violently antisocial. Some began to display autistic-like behavior. A New York Times reporter came out to Madison to do a follow-up and Harlow led him to his lab, where a troop of rocking, head-banging macaques sat in cages, chewing off their fingers.
Mothering, he hypothesized, must have other variables, such as motion. So he made a surrogate that could rock. According to Leonard Rosenblum, one of Harlow's students at the time and now a renowned monkey researcher in his own qusstions, this produced babies that were almost normal, as long as they got an hour and a half of daily play with a live monkey as well.
Rosenblum says, "What this means is that there are three variables to love -- touch, motion, and play -- and if you can supply all of those, you are meeting a primate's needs. A little jiggle, a soft sweater, and only 30 minutes of actual primate interaction. Any mother can do this: Bbw wanting to Roswell New Mexico down, working, wired, iron.
But if Harlow's findings are seemingly so reassuring, so all about love, why do they lodge in the gut like one of his experimental spikes? We shiver through Harlow'sbut still we make use of them. Gest published, powerful research made its way into baby-care products -- most notably the sling and the Snugli, which have added warmth to the ways we parent infants. William Sears, the famous attachment-parenting advocate, a pediatrician who preaches sleeping with your babies, keeping them close at all times, is a Harlow-made man, whether he test questions harlow free it or not.
Orphanages, social service agencies, the birthing industry all had critical policies altered based in part on Harlow's findings. Thanks in part to Harlow, doctors now know to place a newborn directly on its mother's belly after birth. Also thanks in part to Harlow, workers in orphanages know it's not enough to prop etst bottle; the foundling must be held and rocked, see and smile.
Thanks to Harlow and fres colleagues Ladies wants sex NJ Marlton 8053 the study of attachment, we have been humanized -- we possess an entire science of touch, and tst of this came from cruelty. There's questionss paradox. Frde to Harlow, we also have the animal rights movement, which was inspired in part by his research.